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It's Knot Time
A loaded rope is a raw piece of open power machinery w/o safety devices;
- rope can do great work and can save or take a life instantly.
Every Action/inAction to a force loaded line/ or setup for a loading
- dictates a mechanical command to the architechture of the mechanics
- you can stack commands to invoke different forces, sometimes unintentionally!
Rope is a pulling and resisting by pulls only inline tension direction device
-  in a family with: cable, chain, webbing, fishline etc./nonCompression devices
-  Any of this device family is only at full usable capacity at pure inline
Rope can also be thought of as a vessel that carrys power,
- instead of electrical, water, hydralic etc. power; rope carries line tension power.
Friction Path : gradually increasing tension reduction in line
Friction free path : no tension reduction
Pure Inline: 100% efficiency/ all fibers pulled equally /full designed capacity usable
Deflection from pure inline/any curve etc.: limits available fibers that can be used
/ temporarily compromised; is said rope is 'weaker' but just can't use full line capacity
(Simple) Turn: slip with gradual line tension reduction by friction path, best nip/pinch points ~180
Round Turn :Grip, much increased friction path, nip/pinch points 360 +
Dbl.Round Turn / Coil : magnified/super magnified Round Turn properties.
Nip (Crossing) HIGHER TENSION line over lower tension line can 'nip in bud'/hold fast if leveraged enough
- if not seriously reduce lower line tension even further
Crossing Turn : LOWER TENSION line over higher tension
- leverages friction path line tension reduction even more so of both high/low tension parts
Stopper : mechanical cork in bottle stopper/end of line flow as a safety termination;
- best with secondary keeper/ failsafe
The Half-Hitch has a few forms, this it's most basic has several places that the line's own forces can 'nip' down on the 'bitter end' to secure.  The point inline equal and opposite to the main pull wherthe line seats/ pulls into the support/spar; not on the load side where some parts of the  line are neutral, even pulling away!  Any slipped form, travel over/instead of under, coils etc. should always be plotted as spacers to the best/most secure nip point/range where line tension across top shows as RED, not on load /low side where rope is shows as lower tension purple to blue.  The YELLOW shows the bitter  end to be cautious with to proper nip point. Shown here, only the half-n-half   gets a GREEN, for further stopper/in after the BEST/HIGH NIP!
Clove family above shows a basic lacing and how just 1 changes the mechanics and name of the same basic form!  The Clove as pictured has only the host spar as a deformity, it doesn't bend it's own standing part/to the load like the previous Half-Hitches do.  The constrictor is the most secure of the 4, with it's bitter RED line buried under the Crossing Turn and the Standing Tension, it can be hard to remove.  The Bag is my fave, more likely to maintain an opposite/top nip when used as a hitch, easier to tie and untie, and arguably about as secure.  The groundline isn't quite as good, i only would use it on the end of a horizontal line run; because then it hangs down properly/dresses nicely, but even then not for major loading as is subject to jamming.  The Clove and Constrictor are the same mechanic pulled form either end, the bag is a different/secure hitch; but of different mechanics, the groundline shouldn't be loaded backwards. 
Our Greatest benefactor, Mr. Clifford Ashley treated hitches in 2 different chapters 21 and 22/ back to back categorized by a standard perpendicular on spar where the inline function of the line locks across the spar/inline to the rope itself properly, otherwise the latter chapter shows ALL hitches preceded with some type of half hitch or marl to modify a lacing pulls inline with the spar.
#A and #B pull across the spar perpendicular, placing the most intense equal/opposite directly inline, locking into the opposite side of the spar forming the best/top nip point inline.
#C shows the pull along the spar , the line skews trying to compensate and is leveraged, the lock on the opposite side of the spar is not directly inline with the load.
#D shows a (killick hitch) Half Hitch preceding Timber ; now the pull side of the half hitch is inline with the resistance of the half hitch as it leads to Timber hitch part. 
-Timber Hitch is still pulled sideways, but the half hitch has now taken most of the loading, so the Timber part of the mechanic is not leveraged per the actual loading pull on t he eye of the line, Timber is only leveraged in perspective to the buffered loading coming out of the half hitch!
Lacings archive
basic knot terms pic basic knot terms pic
rope terms Ropes Pulleys etc. for a demonstration
page comparing climbing friction hitches: Distel, Schwab, TK, Knut, Icicle, Sailor etc. more friction hitch discussions/ compairisons; sailor hitch shown
bending line for more tension even remotely; from ground tighten down with truckers hitch/zRig as tight as you can, then bend truckers hitches for super tightening
same patterns of pull give same forces rigging with 3 to 1 x friction as control
Making butterfly knot, bend, double/triple bFly maximizing effort input scenarios
translated German site knot site of knot innovator pdf bowline research paper
stitch plate friction device
using rake or stick to plot 45 degree angle to calc fall of tree/building height etc. improved rake trick siting, compensate for small err by measuring to ear not armpit
using friction as a friend to reduce support redirect loading many pulley setups, leveraged powers and names
animated.gif of using Speedline to rig different height targets from a single point pic of counter intuitive hinge down, away from support to tighten line to then pull towards support
tailored, adjustable, long lanyard
bowline and sheet bend are similar but different loading physics
French Prussik pulled out to VT as common base for friction hitches
square, granny, thief, surgeon notes, differences and basic knotting principals file:///C:/Users/kc/Documents/mtl_2016a/Pages/Basic%20Knots-New.htm
making a bowline by the slip knot/inverse method makes it easier on dbl.bowline .swf friction hitches, groudnline, clove, bag etc. animations
.swf maximizing effort and bodyweight to target
.swf line leverage calculator for angled support lines
.swf legs of line pull on support to their total compounded amount X Leveraged angle of pull
.swf still pic of Spanish Burton, Dbl., Alt, Triple compound pulley rigs with floating pulley not on load
applying body weight + effort + equal and opposite of effort makes more power on work
.pic lost art of sweating/swigging a right angle purchase form a line to lift etc. youtube: lost art of sweat/swig line leveraged angle art used to ratchet force; here for dragging boat
pic zRig/truckers hitch increased force pic tighten a line inline to resist bending, then forcefully bend it to leverage!
old book page with pulley names and descriptions etc. compound rig in old ship book for more power
rope rescue considerations .pdf .pdf hse industrial rope usage
.pdf 289pgs knot knowledge .pdf cave/rescue/knot/rope hardware manual extraordinaire, new edition sold
.swf advanced pulley setups of closed systems for more power! .swf pic sling angles of loaded tension
pic tie down, bent lines
pic old parbuckle gives 2x1 on round load, here used to lift log; the now spinning load can also walk! pic parbuckle as 2x1, can be easier than pulley/certainly less tools, and allow load to walk up/across, rather than drag
pic port-a-wrap friction device, setup in a bucket, to store, carry, deploy .pdf military site setup, knots etc.
.pdf canada sea scouts manual; not too many knots in here, but echoing across time, we can see what a young boy might be expected to know, giving handiness of knotting that much more relevance!! .pdf 1917 book on knots etc.
tree climbing etc. friction hitch examinations andtensile tests knot breaking tests with a digital crane scale
parbuckle/pulley pic parbuckle/pulley type apps
2handing.swf .swf slides shows capturing equal / opposite force to work on target load in closed system t
make clove .swf movie drawing clove
line angle .swf calculator for line tension at given angle and load smaller
remote cradle rig .swf movie on using throwline to remotely install far end of line on target limbs
2 hand pic of closed system conserving more forces to target work
mayhem rope force .swf movie of force bends in rope
equal opposite forces .swf movie
better z force pic z rig 3/1 bettered by closed rigging system conserving equal and opposite force back to target
line leverage zones .ext/desc.
rope tourque /roll off trailer pic of rope lacing for easier flip of branch off trailer
rope tourque in rig pic of harder to see felling tourque compared to same on flipping log over
scouting knots scouting knots page
rope rescue 2012 .pdf rope rescue article
industrial rope usage .pdf 165pg, industrial rope safety
tree flying for wheelchairs! .flv amazing vid of wheelchair kids on ropes!!
pull positions pic for point of pull differences discussion
tie DBY vid tying double bowline with yosemite tie off by slipknot/inversion method
secured climber lift pic of secured friction hitch safety lift of limber in DDrT.
pyramid theory pic ingenious theory of using balance and leverage for pyramid building, nonRope but still to simple, marvelous machine ingenuity!
rope dampening pic elastic rope dampening of dynamic loading
rope bends pic. when bending a line, the outer fibers are stretched hardest, therefore carry most/all of the load, so is leveraged load; because same load carried by less fibers; at lower capacity in that usage!
rope mounts pic, rope mount choices
square vs. thief pic square vs. thief, thief pulls on own free ends and fails!
granny, square, thief, surgeon pic comparison
seals breath holding knot tying req. youtube seals basic knot tying requirements while holding breath underwater, should seem easier on land now..
overhead pulley install from ground

Playing with forces to minimize loading while maximizing power

"Friction Saver" (minimal rope friction burns on tree)
Pulley Powers
Pulleys can extend and empower rope machinery
-the same alterations we see in forces happen on any matching rope bend, just at usually higher frictions.
-i think we can learn more about knots by looking at rigging as the same rope device under same forces and principles, just a larger scale model of forces inside a knot!
The pulley bearings are the frictional part/ inefficiency. 
A bushing on pivot can take more abuse, but has more friction; to get another 10% efficiency or so in more delicate bearings can cost 3x as much.
Another way for more efficiency is a larger sheave as lever over the frictions on pivot
-the sheave is also important (sometimes critical in saome materials and cables) as to how well it supports the 'belly' of the loaded line.
Larger sheaves also preserve rope 'strength' by less dramatic bend/more inline fibers.
In the same sheave, a thicker rope can also give some more efficiency, plotting the outside tensed fibers as the actual leverage point from pivot.

1st class lever : input effort and output workforce move in opposite directions; for the pivot is between them.
-this can give more power or speed, or even same, depending on input/output distance ratios from pivot; the real trick is the unique reverse of direction
2nd class lever: input effort and output workforce move in same direction (pivot is not between them) and the input effort is FARTHEST from the pivot
-this concentrates the power on the outer arc of iput into the smaller/less distance arc for more power(SLOWER  output than input)
3rd class lever: input effort and output workforce move in same direction (pivot is not between them) and the input effort is CLOSEST to the pivot
-this dilutes the input effort on the inner input arc into the larger arc, for less power, but over more distance(FASTER output than input)
A pulley itself is a 1st class lever for the simple fact that the ropegoes in 1 direction, comes around and out the opposite.
-There is no leverage gain/loss (only frictional loss) in a lone pulley as both input and output are the same distance from the central pivot.
But, a pulley used on load etc. can give a 1st, 2nd or 3rd class lever by simply if it is on the stationary pivot, moving input or moving output position
-Thus the pulley can reverse direction or increase power/lose speed(distance in same time of movement);  orlose power/increase speed(distance in same time of movement)

no free rides can trade power for distance of work effort input, and then their is an friction inEfficiency 'tax' with every machine/pulley/pivot point
5ft. of 100# input effort can give 2ft. of 250# of load lift(slower) or 10ft. of 50# load lift(faster)
-always limited by /equal to the 500ft.#'s of 5ft. of 100# effort input.(ignoring frictions/inefficiency loss tax)
-actually similair to having bucket of paint 1 coat 40 boxes, or 2 coats 20boxes, or 4 coats on 10 boxes; always the same factor, paint goes farther or 'deeper'/stronger; no
-5 gallons of water can be stretched out in more quart containers or less 1 gallon containers(less any tax/inefficeincies of spillage, water stuck to side etc.)
magic after peeking behind the curtain; just common day sense they found  (sic. Wizard of Oz)
1st class lever trick / closing machine to self and conserving more forces to target; thru unique reverse direction prop. of 1st class lever
2 parts: bodyweight and effort, can impact both, at same time or use 1 force to steady while lining up other  force to engage
(bodyweight + effort + equal and opposite of effort ) X as much impact as you can muster , all in concert, demading legforce be your input effort, can be quite powerful game changer: lever, 4way , pulley, climber lift, 3/1, 5/1, 15/1
not rotaional levearge like arc on stiff bar, but increase of number of pulls on load by pulleys actually on load itself
-stiff lever system or flexible lever system(pulleys) can be used to adjust power/distance/direction

examine pulley forces to know outside of limits on rope forces in knots/ jsut with more friction than pulley but same math of bend in line

pulley / flexible levers etc. also like a transmission:
1st class lever: Reverse
2nd class lever: Low Speed /hi power to start
3rd class lever: Hi speed / lower power to keep rolling

bikes, hydralic jack

Tree Misc.
Tree Care Errs:
Disrupting remaining tissue on a cut or leaving too much/
wound sealing.

If must remove branching, releive weight off it first with a primary removal cut, then make finishing cut of a small piece to knot stretch the fibers into the wound/leaving disruption, more attackable surface area, more draining on tree to handle etc.
DON"T cut into the parent swell at joint or takes MUCH longer to seal, inviting more problems etc.!!!!
Tree Care Errs:
Mulch aginst trunk or too deep suffocates.
Tree Care Errs:

Mulch should be 1 foot from trunk NOT against trunk.
Slide shows root tissue very different than trunk; tunk tissue like upper plant.
Mulch should not be so heavy in total weight as to smother the ground, nor so deep that air/gasses can't exchange.
Mulch should not be more than 5" deep, 2" if soil real 'tight' /already air problem
alex shig root vs. stem microsocope slide from
                             ~  part of the Dr. Alex Shigo collection at ~
root flare / trunk flare is the same, trunk flare is more actually descriptive, calling attention to 'is not root tissue" flares.html
   animated climbing .gif, unkown author

good'ol days; in
my Natural habitat

animated cartoon chaisnaw madman, unknown author


 Tree Climbing at Trail's Edge Camp i guess you'd have to be a climber; to know well the weightless feel of rising/floating into a grand tree canopy, in such light ballet as these climbers;
but i hope anyone can see the wonder of same afforded to those who can't even walk.  Which i could have been there to help.
This might not be easy to watch, put you probably don't want to miss it! :
keeping large impacts soft
barberchair .swf vid shows crossing faceCuts that results in deadly barberchair
hinge force balances pic of hinge forces to off side leaning tree head
tapered hinge pic of tapering hinge fat to opposite side of head line
natural hinge loading adjustments pic how off balance load is naturally adjusted for in hinge, at least partially
remote cradle rig .swf movie on using throwline to remotely install far end of line on target limbs
same forces pic same force pattern in different setups gives same forces
friction hitches html page comparing tree climber's friction hitches
no face warning .swf movie warning of barberchair from back pressure if no face cut
leveraging .ext/desc
chainsaw cuts .swf movie tree felling topic
equal opposite forces .swf movie
maximizing input effort .swf player: 2handing / maximizing input power usage
sling loading angles .swf pic of sling loading angles
included bark .html page of codminance and included bark pix with many 2004 florida hurricane fails
lifted tree up .jpg storm felled hickory lifted back up over fancy patio with compound pulley theory
tree rig vid .ext/desc.
line leveraging .ext/desc.
hinging pic tree hinging considerations
chainsaw safety external chainsaw safety course
rope rescue 2012 .pdf rope rescue article
industrial rope usage .pdf 165pg, industrial rope safety
tree flying for wheelchairs! .flv amazing vid of wheelchair kids on ropes!!
maas rig warning .gif animated, funning around, tree rig warning
wedge bucking pic wedge use in tree bucking/felling
man vs. tree .mpeg vid of martial artist trying to catch tree??
tech dictionary for tree guys pic
rake/stick site height pic of using stick/rake to plot fall of tree
failed hinge rips .jpg pix of bad cutting errs
parbuckle lift rig pic of 2 to 1 lift of round spar etc. by using spar as redirect like it's own pulley!
parbuckle truck lift pic parbuckle for rope rolling up barrels on ship ramp, here used thrown over trailer to lift log in 2 x1 pulled by truck!
port-a-wrap store and deploy pic store and deploy port a wrap friction device in 5gal bucket with large tail line
pull positions pic for point of pull differences discussion
tie DBY vid tying double bowline with yosemite tie off by slipknot/inversion method
secured climber lift pic of secured friction hitch safety lift of limber in DDrT.
pyramid theory pic ingenious theory of using balance and leverage for pyramid building, nonRope but still to simple, marvelous machine ingenuity!
rope dampening pic elastic rope dampening of dynamic loading
force stronger hinge pic of pulling with rope on felling tree at first folding to force stronger hinge
tree root crowns pic. trees should have root crowns proudly above ground, not buried below promoting rot to this important area
rope mounts pic, rope mount choices
remote pulley install overhead pic of trick inversion to remotely float and remove a pulley/line!
DBY tying pic. tying Dble, Bowline with Yosemite tie off by inverse/slipknot method
old adjustable lanyard pic of home made adjustable safety lanyard
French hitch base for friction hitches friction hitch inline pull comparison
lanyard 2 pic home maid adjustable lanyard
pulley systems pic of MANY pulley setups, names and loadings
Spencer Speedline Rig .gif animated ingenious repeated Speedline use for rigging limbs out maid by Dave spencer
support loading pic. calculating minimal support loading for rigging or lifeline can allow you to engineer best solution
calc fall zone pic using rake or stick to plot 45 degree angle to see space need for tree felling
stitch plate pic of simple olde rope friction device
tensioning pic
line loading pic
kit pic of some old ropes/pulleys
butterfly knot, bend pic of making a butterfly knot
Franz Bachman link to German knot innovations page
other links
knot forum
knot tying
tree/ climb forum
tree climb forum
tree climb forum
tree climb forum
Define group: Inline only, tension only loading devices: rope, webbing, chain, cable, fishing line etc.
Differentiate from solid wood/metal/stone etc. devices that support inline and across their main axis-es, and in the compression and tension directions both!
Example: A wooden beam can support a table from underneath, or from above; even at an angle.  A single line can only support from above, and only directly inline/under the support
Paradigm: Because these devices only resist in on the inline plane in the tension direction:
You can do great work, morph the device w/o tools, over distance and yet be folded away into a bag like it was nothing.
BUT, in trade, ANY deformity from it's perfect, natural inline state; takes some of the fibers out of inline, and only inline fibers can give support
-whereby the line now has less capacity; as less pure inline fibers are allowed to work.
site expresses principles in most popular rope context, but same mechanics dictate the properties of the whole family of devices (rope, webbing, chain, cable, fishing line etc.)
-with variances per their constructions and stiffnesses (the stiffer, the more resistance to bend/ so more leverageable)

pulley  inline multipliers, rope machines
swig leveraged multipliers
perpendicular spar pulls, leading half hitch/marl(s) to convert to inline loading pulls
inline pulls typically leading half/marl(s) and then anchor, goes into friction hitches throat are built same for inline rope loading to a line itself

rope theory
rope leverage vs. spar leverage

Now / Then
Around 2000 i started to realize i was collecting and even losing some of a lot of links, and information mostly inspired by ISA tree climbing  BBS that in someways morphed into
i put together several free websites before buying some cheap space; and maintained the site in place after was to old for tree work and keep site open; using only for experimenting for work, wedding, funeral etc. .
i've always wanted to show the 'knot' and riggings for them as categorized by their mechanical forces that they invoke; and some how started drawing knots again at start of 2016; looking to dedicate some space to them under separate domain name.
In respects to the history of the wooden spar and boat heritage of most knot lacings, as well as my own tree work background will maintain a woodsy theme even if evolves to a more full blown knot site.  To stand for the heritage as well as keep the grit of real hard work done with these working class knots; and lessons learned that way!